He was the Supreme Commander of the army. In this video you will learn about the administrative policies followed by Akbar and the officials in his kingdom. A large number of people assembled below the balcony, presented their petitions to the emperor, besides having a fortunate glimpse of their emperor. Akbar's reign was chronicled by his court historian Abul Fazal in the books Akbarnama and Ain-i-Akbari. Akbar’s infallible administrative system proves his very wise acumen for bringing about greater changes in the political chaos of a country which was an amalgamation of a … Disclaimer Copyright, History Discussion - Discuss Anything About History, Administration of India under the Bahmani Kingdom | Indian History, Salient Features of Maratha Administration under Shivaji, Forts in India: 5 Magnificent Ancient Forts in India, Mosques in India: 15 Ancient Mosques in India. Although Aurangzeb was an observer of Hanif ideology of traditional Muslim law in India, he did not hesitate in issuing secular laws (jurists) such as Jabavit. [Solved] Write a short note on Akbar’s administrative policies. Akbar's policy of religious tolerance ensured that employment in the imperial administration was open to all on merit irrespective of creed, and this led to an increase in the strength of the administrative … Akbar was the centre of all powers—civil, judicial, military and religious. Cultural unity: Cultural unity between the Hindus and the Muslims was strengthened. Special consultation with the ministers and nobles were held at the hall of Special Audience (Diwan-i-khas). Those ranks were systematically graded from commanders of 10 persons to commanders of 5,000 persons, higher ranks being allotted to Mughal princes. He also received with enthusiasm the European pictures brought by the Jesuits, and his painters incorporated European techniques of realism and perspective into the distinctive Mughal painting style (characterized by a vivid treatment of the physical world) that began to develop during his reign. e.g: Raja Birbal was a close associate of Akbar and was responsible for justice. Akbar considered the monarchy above religion and sect and adopted a policy of reconciliation in place of the Orthodox Islamic doctrine. He first served on Sher Shah’s court, but later … The Administrative System of Akbar holds a significant place in Indian History. Akbar’s Religious Policy. Indian History, Mughal Emperors, Akbar, Administration, Administration of Akbar. 2) Each province also had a diwan. Therefore, he was able to win the goodwill of the Rajput who became staunch supporters of the Empire. The land was measured by means of bamboos joined together with iron rings. Politically, the greatest merit of the system was that it enabled the emperor to offer attractive careers to the able, ambitious, and influential. COMPARISON BETWEEN AKBAR AND AURANGZEB ON MUGHAL RELATIONS WITH THE RAJPUT. The posts of Wakil and Wazir were combined together afterwards and the holder of the post was called Vakil-i-Mutlaq. Akbar was an enlightened and successful administrator. Therefore, the administrative machinery began to slip out from the control of the emperor which contributed to the downfall of the Mughal Empire. Although that seems to have been little more than an expression of his systematic approach to problems, the orthodox were offended. That excluded the lands under tributary rulers such as the Rajputs and also the lands assigned for the maintenance of Mughal officers. These types of lands were divided into three grades, viz., good, average and bad. Likewise other Ministers became powerful. Clearly, although he was illiterate, he had a powerful and original mind. In bad seasons, remissions of revenues were granted to the farmers. He looked after the imperial house-hold. The wide and sweeping conquests of Mughal emperor Akbar are an eloquent testimony to his extraordinary military talents. In that way, Akbar was able to enlist the loyal services of many Rajput princes. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The petitions were promptly attended to on the spot or later in the open hall of public audience (Diwan-i-am). Akbar understood that need and satisfied it. The Subadar carried out … There were three systems of land revenue: This system was prevalent in the areas from Lahore to Allahabad and in Malwa and Gujarat. All appointments, promotions or dismissals depended on his decision and orders. He coordinated the work of all other ministers. It resulted in the development of a composite culture. Normally state officers did not interfere in the village affairs. Similarly, he commissioned the translation of Sanskrit classics into Persian and gave illustrated copies to his courtiers. In the Mansabdari system no Jagirs were granted for the purpose of paying salaries. Physically, he was strong and could withstand hardship on campaigns. Bairam Khan was the guardian of Akbar. There were two methods of making payments to the nobles. Akbar’s administrative system can be grouped under two heads: Central Administration Provincial Administration The Mughal-style Jāmiʿ Masjid (Great Mosque) built under Akbar's reign in Fatehpur Sikri, Uttar Pradesh, India. Second, the traditional distinction between the nobility of the sword and that of the pen was abolished: civil administrators were assigned military ranks, thus becoming as dependent on the emperor as army officers. Todar Mai, the revenue minister of Akbar played an important role in devising and introducing a very effective and efficient land revenue and record system. Akbar was not only a brave soldier, a successful leader and a great religious reformer but also a great administrator. Akbar was an artisan, warrior, artist, armourer, administrator carpenter, emperor, general, inventor, animal trainer, technologist. It consisted of three volumes which give detail information about Akbar’s ancestors, the important events during Akbar’s reign, and a record of his administrative system called Ain-i Akbari respectively. He was like the Prime Minister and advised the king in all matters. According to him, “Upon the conduct of a monarch depends the efficiency of any course of action. Akbar also continued to maintain excellent diplomatic relationship with the Safavid rulers of Persia, which dated back to his father’s days with Shah Tahmasp I lending his military support to Humayun for recapturing Delhi. (ii) Parauti land was left uncultivated after every crop to regain its productivity, (iii) Chachhar land was left uncultivated for 3 to 4 years. The second was making cash payment. Abul Fazl,wrote a manuscript on the history of Akbar’s reign called as Akbar Nama. It goes to the credit of Akbar that the subsequent Mughal rulers followed in principle the administrative policy developed by him. Akbar gave the Mughal India one official language (Per­sian), a uniform administrative system and coinage, and a common system of weights and measures. Akbar also supported state workshops for the production of high-quality textiles and ornaments. TOS4. The Subadar carried out … Central Administration: Akbar was the overall in-charge of the central government. 04/05/2020 12:13 pm. It was Akbar (who promoted the syncretic religion called Dīn-i Ilāhī) during whose reign the religious policy of the Mughals were formulated. Akbar’s reforms required a centralized financial system, and, thus, by the side of each provincial governor (sūbadār, later called nawab) was placed a civil administrator (dīwān, or divan) who supervised revenue collection, prepared accounts, and reported directly to the emperor. Provinces were divided into Sarkars, Sarkars into Parganas and Parganas into villages. Important features of Akbar’s administration are given below: Akbar’s ideal of Kingship. Akbar gave the post of the prime minister to Bairam Khan. This system was called Bamboo Jarib system. THE NOBILITY UNDER AKBAR AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF HIS RELIGIOUS POLICY, 1560 80 By Iqtidar Alam Khan The significant changes that were introduced in the organization of Mughal government and the accompanying shifts in Akbar's administrative and religious policies during the Rajput Policy of Akbar. This system was in vogue in Thatta and in parts of Kabul and Kandhar. For the assessment and collection of revenue, a large number of officers like the Amil, Bitikchi, Qanungo, Muqaddam and Patwari were appointed. Farmers could get loans easily from the state which could be paid in easy annual installments. Those discussions were continued by a small group of courtiers who shared with Akbar a taste for mysticism. Akbar’s Administration Policies. The farmers could deposit the land revenue direct to the treasury. Although their doctrines and ceremonies, known as the Divine Faith (Dīn-e Ilāhī), assigned a central place to Akbar himself, it would be an oversimplification to ascribe political motives to those developments. In short, the new religion was based on common truths of all religions and rules were formulated on the rules of various religions. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. The system was for ten years. 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